I see many people talking and using Maria Montessori's way of teaching and learning practices. But many have no idea about her philosophy or many other wonderful philosophers' ideas about learning and development. Each week, I will be posting about a new philosopher and briefly their theories. I would love to hear what you think of their philosophy or if you have heard of them in the comments.
The first philosopher I want to talk about is Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development:
Jean Piaget's theory is based on children organizing the environment around them. We constantly create, refine, change, modify, and recognize our mental representation of experiences. Each developmental stage is built on and incorporates the accomplishments of the previous one.
Stage 1- Sensorimotor stage- (Birth- 2 years) - Children learn to identify object permanence. Realize they are separate from things around them. That an action equals a reaction. Learn about the world through their senses.
Stage 2- Preoperational stage- (2- 7 years old)- Children are egocentric. Logical thinking to concrete problems. If you were to roll playdough into two equal balls and ask which one is bigger. They are likely to choose one even though they are the same size. (ask a lot of questions)
Stage 3- Concrete operational stage- (7- 11 years old) - Children are able to conserve but are not able to think abstractly. More logical and organized.
Stage 4- Formal operational stage- (11 plus) - Children understand roles. Begins to think morally about issues around them.
Jean Piaget believed that children already used math to solve problems. He believed they already explore, experiment, and make observations daily. Children are continually learning about the world around them. Piaget believed that the development of a child came from within. Children are constantly creating and recreating. He viewed that teachers should not transmit information but guide children to discover. Children must interact with the world to understand it. (constructivism) Piaget also believed that play was essential in development. Practice games, symbolic games, and games with rules. Children learn by interacting verbally, physically, and abstractly.